Payments to 1890 Land-Grant Colleges and Tuskegee University
To support continuing agricultural research at colleges eligible to receive funds under the Act of August 30, 1890 (26 Stat. 417-419), as amended; 7 U.S.C. 321-326 and 328), including Tuskegee University, West Virginia State University and Central State University. Its purpose is to promote efficient production, marketing, distribution and utilization of products of the farm as essential to the health and welfare of people and to promote a sounds prosperous agriculture and rural life.
General information about this opportunity
Last Known Status
National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Department of Agriculture
Type(s) of Assistance Offered
A - Formula Grants
Fiscal Year 2016
In FY 2016, a newly designated 1890 Land-Grant University (authorized under the 2014 Farm Bill) became eligible for funding under this program, bringing the total to 19 institutions, located in 18 States. The appropriated amount in FY 2016 was $54,185,000. Funding to the 19 institutions after legislatively authorized set-asides were $50,910,586. Funds will be distributed on a formula basis, with a 100 percent matching requirement by the State from non-federal sources. However, a matching waiver may be granted by the funding agency with appropriate justification from requesting institution. The appropriated amount for the 1890 Evans-Allen Program was $54,185,000. The funds available to the states after legislatively authorized set-asides were $50,910.586 The 19 Institutions, located in 18 states, were awarded funds based on a formula and the awards ranged from $1,242,633 to $5,110,655. Institutions were required to provide a 1:1 dollar match. However, matching waivers were an option for institutions that were unable to acquire the required match from the State due to financial constraints and reductions to State budgets.Fiscal Year 2017
In Fiscal Year (FY) 2017, the appropriated amount was $54,185,000. Funding to the 19 institutions after legislatively authorized set-asides were $50,780,008. Funds were distributed on a formula basis, with a 100 percent (100%) matching requirement by the State from non-federal sources. However, NIFA may consider and approve matching waiver requests above the 50 percent level.Fiscal Year 2018
In Fiscal Year (FY) 2018, the appropriated amount was $54,185,000. Funding to the 19 institutions after legislatively authorized set-asides were $50,780,008. Funds were distributed on a formula basis, with a 100 percent (100%) matching requirement by the State from non-federal sources. However, NIFA granted waivers to institutions that were unable to secure the required match from their respective states.Fiscal Year 2019
In FY 2019 $58 million was appropriated to support agricultural research at the 1890 Land-Grant Universities. The amount available for awards, after legislatively authorized set-asides was approximately $54 million. Funds will be distributed quarterly, after receipt of performance and financial reports. The program has a required matching component. If the institutions is unable to secure the 100% state match, NIFA may consider and approve matching waiver requests above the 50 percent level.Fiscal Year 2020
For FY 2020, the President’s Budget is approximately $53.8 million. FY 2020 awards will support the 19 institutions located in 18 states. The amount available for awards is projected to be approximately $50.5 million. NIFA will issue FY 2020 quarterly payments subject to the availability of funds and the applicant having met the previous year’s reporting requirements.
Section 1445 of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (NARETPA), enacted as Title XIV of Public Law 95–113 (The Food and Agriculture Act of 1977) on Sept. 29, 1977 is also known as the Evans-Allen Research Program. This law provides the basis for Federal funding for agricultural research activities at 1890 Land-Grant Institutions under the Act of August 30, 1890 (26 Stat. 417–419, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 321–326 and 328), including Tuskegee University, West Virginia State University and Central State University. Amended by Public Law 95-547, Public Law 97-98, Public Law 99-198, Public Law 101-624, Public Law 104-127 and Public Law 105-185., 7 U.S.C 3222; Public Law 113-79, 7 U.S.C. 3222
Who is eligible to apply/benefit from this assistance?
Applications may be submitted by 1890 Land-Grant Universities, including Tuskegee University, West Virginia State University and Central State University.
Applications may be submitted by 1890 Land-Grant Universities, including Tuskegee University, West Virginia State University and Central State University.
Credentials/Documentation (083): The System for Award Management (SAM) combines eight federal procurement systems, including CCR, and the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance into one new system. CCR activities are conducted through SAM (the CCR website will redirect users to SAM). Dun and Bradstreet Universal Numbering System (DUNS) Number and System for Award Management (SAM): Each applicant (unless excepted under 2 CFR SS 25.110(b) or (c), or has an exception approved by the Federal awarding agency under 2 CFR SS 25.110(d)) is required to: (i) Be registered in SAM before submitting its application; (ii) Provide a valid DUNS number in its application; and (iii) Continue to maintain an active SAM registration with current information at all times during which it has an active Federal award or an application or plan under consideration by a Federal awarding agency. It also must state that the Federal awarding agency may not make a Federal award to an applicant until the applicant has complied with all applicable DUNS and SAM requirements and, if an applicant has not fully complied with the requirements by the time the Federal awarding agency is ready to make a Federal award, the Federal awarding agency may determine that the applicant is not qualified to receive a Federal award and use that determination as a basis for making a Federal award to another applicant. Applicants must furnish the information required in the Request for Applications (RFAs). Successful applicants recommended for funding must furnish the information and assurances requested during the award documentation process. These include, but are not limited to the following: Organizational Management Information - Specific management information relating to an applicant shall be submitted on a one time basis, with updates on an as needed basis, as part of the responsibility determination prior to the award of a grant identified under this RFA, if such information has not been provided previously under this or another NIFA program. NIFA will provide copies of forms recommended for use in fulfilling these requirements as part of the preaward process. Although an applicant may be eligible based on its status as one of these entities, there are factors which may exclude an applicant from receiving Federal financial and nonfinancial assistance and benefits under this program (e.g., debarment or suspension of an individual involved or a determination that an applicant is not responsible based on submitted organizational management information). This information collection is approved under OMB Circular Control No. 0524-0026, "Assurance of Compliance with the Department of Agriculture Regulations Assuring Civil Rights, Compliance and Organization Information." SPECIAL NOTE: Please refer to the Capacity, Competitive, and/or Non-Competitive Request for Applications (RFAs) for further specific and pertinent details. The most current RFAs are available as follows: https://nifa.usda.gov/sites/default/files/resources/FY18AgriculturalResearchat1890InstitutionsModification882017.pdf RFAs are generally released annually. Hence, the RFAs provide the most current and accurate information available. Any specific instructions in the Capacity, Competitive, and/or Non-Competitive RFAs supersede the general information provided in the CFDA database.
What is the process for applying and being award this assistance?
Preapplication coordination is required. An environmental impact statement is required for this listing. An environmental impact assessment is not required for this listing. This program is excluded from coverage under E.O. 12372. All Request for Applications (RFAs) are published on the Agency’s website and Grants.gov. Applicants must complete the Grants.gov registration process. Please see the following Grants.gov link for more information: http://www.grants.gov. This program is excluded from coverage under E.O. 12372.
Pre-award form submissions must be submitted to the Evans-Allen program as a “new” application on the www.grants.gov website.
As noted previously, these application packages complement, rather than duplicate, the information collected via the Plan of Work (POW) system and the Research, Extension, and Education Project Online Reporting Tool (REEport), and together satisfy all legislative and regulatory pre-award requirements.
Section 202 of the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998 (AREERA) amended the Smith-Lever Act and the Hatch Act to require approved plans of work for agricultural extension and research activities at 1862 and 1890 Land-Grant Institutions in order to receive Federal funding. Therefore, each 1862 and 1890 Land-Grant Institution must submit both a Five (5) Year Plan of Work Update (i.e., submitted each year as an update) and an Annual Report of Accomplishments and Results. Both reports were due by April 1.
Specific project details and pertinent information should be entered in the REEport The REEport system collects technical and financial data about projects NIFA has funded and allows grantees to report significant accomplishments and impacts of their research, extension, and education work. An environmental impact statement is required for this program.
2 CFR 200, Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards applies to this program. The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) only accepts electronic applications which are submitted via Grants.gov in response to specific Requests for Applications (RFA). Applicants must complete the Grants.gov registration process. For information about the pre-award phase of the grant lifecycle application processes see: http://www.grants.gov/web/grants/learn-grants/grants-101/pre-award-phase.html. Further, applicants must follow the instructions provided in the NIFA Grants.gov Application Guide, which can be assessed as follows: Adobe NIFA Applications. 2 CFR part 200, Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards and 2 CFR part 400 USDA's Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards apply to this program. SPECIAL NOTE: Please refer to the Capacity, Competitive, and/or Non-Competitive Request for Applications (RFAs) for further specific and pertinent details. The most current RFAs are available via: https://nifa.usda.gov/sites/default/files/resources/FY18AgriculturalResearchat1890InstitutionsModification882017.pdf RFAs are generally released annually. Hence, the RFAs provide the most current and accurate information available. Any specific instructions in the Capacity, Competitive, and/or Non-Competitive RFAs supersede the general information provided in the CFDA database.
The Planning, Accountability and Reporting Staff (PARS) and the Office of Grants and Financial Management (OGFM) Capacity Branch will be reviewing submitted documents to determine if all program, financial, and administrative requirements have been met and are current. To receive an annual allotment of funds, each eligible institution or State must first submit a plan of work to NIFA for approval. During the grant period, PARS will notify the OGFM Capacity Branch and the institution regarding each institution's compliance with the Plan of Work reporting requirements (i.e., Five (5) Year Plan of Work Update and an Annual Report of Accomplishments and Results). If all current program and administrative requirements have been met by the eligible institution, funding will continue to be released on a quarterly basis. The OGFM Capacity Branch will notify the institutions when all requirements have been met or approved. PARS will notify the OGFM Capacity Branch and the institution regarding each institution's compliance with the Plan of Work reporting requirements (i.e., Five (5) Year Plan of Work Update and an Annual Report of Accomplishments and Results). If all current program and administrative requirements have been met by the eligible institution, funding will continue to be released on a quarterly basis. The OGFM Capacity Branch will notify the institutions when all requirements have been met or approved. 2 CFR Part 200 - Subpart C and Appendix I apply to this program. 2 CFR Part 400 applies to this program. Applications are subjected to a system of peer and merit review in accordance with section 103 of the Agricultural Research, Extension and Education Reform Act of 1998 (7 U.S.C. 7613) by a panel of qualified scientists and other appropriate persons who are specialists in the field covered by the proposal. Within the limit of funds available for such purpose, the NIFA Authorized Departmental Officer (ADO) shall make grants to those responsible, eligible applicants whose applications are judged most meritorious under the procedures set forth in the RFA. Reviewers will be selected based upon training and experience in relevant scientific, extension, or education fields, taking into account the following factors: (a) The level of relevant formal scientific, technical education, or extension experience of the individual, as well as the extent to which an individual is engaged in relevant research, education, or extension activities; (b) the need to include as reviewers experts from various areas of specialization within relevant scientific, education, or extension fields; (c) the need to include as reviewers other experts (e.g., producers, range or forest managers/operators, and consumers) who can assess relevance of the applications to targeted audiences and to program needs; (d) the need to include as reviewers experts from a variety of organizational types (e.g., colleges, universities, industry, state and Federal agencies, private profit and non-profit organizations) and geographic locations; (e) the need to maintain a balanced composition of reviewers with regard to minority and female representation and an equitable age distribution; and (f) the need to include reviewers who can judge the effective usefulness to producers and the general public of each application. Evaluation Criteria will be delineated in the Competitive Request for Applications (RFA). 2 CFR 200 - Subpart C and Appendix I and 2 CFR part 400 apply to this Program. SPECIAL NOTE: Please refer to the Capacity, Competitive, and/or Non-Competitive Request for Applications (RFAs) for further specific and pertinent details. The most current RFAs are available via: https://nifa.usda.gov/sites/default/files/resources/FY18AgriculturalResearchat1890InstitutionsModification882017.pdf RFAs are generally released annually. Hence, the RFAs provide the most current and accurate information available. Any specific instructions in the Capacity, Competitive, and/or Non-Competitive RFAs supersede the general information provided in the CFDA database.
Contact the headquarters or regional location, as appropriate for application deadlines
Approval/Disapproval Decision Time
From 30 to 60 days. Deadlines (094): Contact the headquarters or regional office, as appropriate, for application deadlines. Range of Approval/Disapproval Time (095): From 30 to 60 days. Contact the National Program Leader (NPL), as indicated per CFDA Section # 152 - Headquarters Office regarding dates for specific deadlines, start and end dates, and range of approval/disapproval time. Information is also available via our website and may be obtained via the Grants.gov website. NIFA's respective links regarding general information are provided below: http://nifa.usda.gov/ http://www.grants.gov. SPECIAL NOTE: Please refer to the Capacity, Competitive, and/or Non-Competitive Request for Applications (RFAs) for further specific and pertinent details. The most current RFA is available via: https://nifa.usda.gov/sites/default/files/resources/FY18AgriculturalResearchat1890InstitutionsModification882017.pdf RFAs are generally released annually. Hence, the RFAs provide the most current and accurate information available. Any specific instructions in the Capacity, Competitive, and/or Non-Competitive RFAs supersede the general information provided in the CFDA database.
Not Applicable. 2 CFR Part 200 - Subparts D & E apply to this program.
Not applicable, each year of funding is awarded as a new grant. Specific details are provided in the Request for Applications (RFA), which are generally published annually. The most current RFA is available via: https://nifa.usda.gov/sites/default/files/resources/FY18AgriculturalResearchat1890InstitutionsModification882017.pdf
How are proposals selected?
2 CFR part 200, Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards and 2 CFR part 400 USDA's Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards apply to this program. Within guidelines established for the program as described in the Capacity, Competitive, and/or Non-Competitive Request for Application (RFA). The most current RFAs are available via: https://nifa.usda.gov/sites/default/files/resources/FY18AgriculturalResearchat1890InstitutionsModification882017.pdf
How may assistance be used?
This grant is used to support continuing agricultural research at 1890 Land-Grant Institutions, including Tuskegee University, West Virginia State University and Central State University. Funds appropriated under this section shall be used for expenses of conducting agricultural research, printing, disseminating the results of such research, contributing to the retirement of employees subject to the provisions of the Act of March 4, 1940 (54 Stat. 39–40, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 331), administrative planning and direction, and purchase and rental of land and the construction, acquisition, alteration, or repair of buildings necessary for conducting agricultural research. The eligible institutions are authorized to plan and conduct agricultural research in cooperation with each other and such agencies, institutions and individuals as may contribute to the solution to the solution of agricultural problems, and funds appropriated pursuant to section 1445 shall be available for paying the necessary expenses of planning, coordinating and conducting such cooperative research.
What are the requirements after being awarded this opportunity?
(Details regarding Performance Monitoring are provided above.)
In accordance with 2 CFR Part 400 - Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards, Subpart F-Audit Requirements nonfederal entities that expend financial assistance of $750,000 or more during the non-Federal entity's fiscal year in Federal awards must have a single or program-specific audit conducted for that year in accordance with the provisions of this part. A non-Federal entity that expends less than $750,000 during the non-Federal entity's fiscal year in Federal awards is exempt from Federal audit requirements for that year, except as noted in SS 200.503. Relation to other audit requirements, but records must be available for review or audit by appropriate officials of the Federal agency, pass-through entity, and Government Accountability Office (GAO). Relation to other audit requirements, but records must be available for review or audit by appropriate officials of the Federal agency, pass-through entity, and Government Accountability Office (GAO). This program is also subject to audit by the cognizant Federal audit agency and the USDA Office of Inspector General.
In accordance with 2 CFR Part 400 - Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards, SS 200.333 Retention requirements for records. grantees shall maintain separate records for each grant to ensure that funds are used for authorized purposes. Grant-related records are subject to inspection during the life of the grant and must be retained at least three (3) years. Records must be retained beyond the three (3) year period if litigation is pending or audit findings have not been resolved. 2 CFR Part 200 - Subpart D applies to this program.
Other Assistance Considerations
Formula and Matching Requirements
Statutory Formula: Title Evans-Allen Research Public Law 95-113 Evans-Allen Research
Matching is voluntary. 100%. NARETPA section1449 (7 U.S.C. 3222d) states that “the State shall provide matching funds from non-Federal sources. Such matching funds shall be for an amount equal to not less than ... 100 percent of the formula [grant] funds to be distributed to the eligible institution for fiscal year 2007 and each fiscal year thereafter. ... Notwithstanding [redistributing the funds], the Secretary may waive the matching funds requirement ... above the 50 percent level for any fiscal year for an eligible institution of a State if the Secretary determines that the State will be unlikely to satisfy the matching requirement.”
MOE requirements are not applicable to this assistance listing.
Length and Time Phasing of Assistance
Evans-Allen Research Program funds are fiscal year appropriated and expected to be fully expended in the fiscal year of appropriation; however, funds may be carried over for up to one additional year. Please note there is no limitation on the amount of Federal funds that may be carried over for this one additional fiscal year. No prior approval from NIFA is required. Since this limitation is legislatively mandated, NIFA is not authorized to grant any carryover requests beyond this one additional year. 2 CFR Part 200, Subpart D applies to this program. Evans-Allen Research Program funds are fiscal year appropriated and expected to be fully expended in the fiscal year of appropriation; however, funds may be carried over for up to one (1) additional year. Please note there is no limitation on the amount of Federal funds that may be carried over for this one (1) additional fiscal year. No prior approval from NIFA is required. Since this limitation is legislatively mandated, NIFA is not authorized to grant any carryover requests beyond this one (1) additional year. Further details are provided in the Award document Form NIFA-2009 and the NIFA General Terms and Conditions Grants and Cooperative Agreements (dated October 2016) at: https://nifa.usda.gov/resource/nifa-general-terms-and-conditions-grants-and-cooperative-agreements-october-2016. SPECIAL NOTE: Please refer to the Capacity, Competitive, and/or Non-Competitive Request for Applications (RFAs) for specific and pertinent details. The most current RFAs are available via: https://nifa.usda.gov/sites/default/files/resources/FY18AgriculturalResearchat1890InstitutionsModification882017.pdf RFAs are generally released annually. Hence, the RFAs provide the most current and accurate information available. Any specific instructions in the Capacity, Competitive, and/or Non-Competitive RFAs supersede the general information provided in the CFDA database. NIFA utilizes the Automated Standard Application for Payments (ASAP), a secure, web-based electronic payment and information system that allows federal agencies to administer funds. Currently, ASAP is the only payment source for new NIFA grantees.
Who do I contact about this opportunity?
Regional or Local Office
NIFA is transitioning to a new location for Fiscal Year 2020. NIFA's New Mailing Address AFTER September 30, 2019 follows: National Institute of Food and Agriculture 6501 Beacon Drive Kansas City, MO 64133
USDA, NIFA, National Program Leader,
Institute of Youth, Family, and Community, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., STOP 2250
Washington , DC 20250-2250 US
(Formula Grants (Apportionments)) FY 18$50,877,548.00; FY 19 est $54,459,680.00; FY 20 est $50,532,011.00; FY 17$50,780,008.00; FY 16$50,910,586.00; - The difference between the appropriation and obligation numbers reflects legislative authorized set-asides deducted as appropriate, and in some cases the availability of obligational authority from prior years.
Range and Average of Financial Assistance
If minimum or maximum amounts of funding per competitive and/or capacity project grant, or cooperative agreement are established, these amounts will be announced in the annual Capacity, Competitive, and/or Non-Competitive Request for Application (RFA). The most current RFA is available via: https://nifa.usda.gov/sites/default/files/resources/FY18AgriculturalResearchat1890InstitutionsModification882017.pdf
Regulations, Guidelines and Literature
As an administrator of U.S. government support, NIFA works in partnership with grantees to ensure responsible stewardship of federal funds. Our grantees and partners are required to comply with all relevant rules and regulations. The following resources are provided to NIFA's partners and award recipients to support their adherence to federal regulations governing program performance: NIFA's primary (main) website: https://nifa.usda.gov/regulations-and-guidelines The following represent specific documents and direct links: POLICY GUIDE NIFA's Federal Assistance Policy Guide describes agency policies and procedures. https://nifa.usda.gov/policy-guide CERTIFICATIONS AND REPRESENTATIONS Certifications and representations provided through the NIFA application process. https://nifa.usda.gov/certifications-and-representations ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF USDA SUPPORT BY NIFA When acknowledging USDA support in accordance with 2 CFR Part 415, grantees must use the following acknowledgement for all projects or initiatives supported by NIFA. https://nifa.usda.gov/acknowledgment-usda-support-nifa FEDERAL REGULATIONS The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) lists all regulations published in the Federal Register. https://nifa.usda.gov/federal-regulations FOIA The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) provides that any person has the right to request access to federal documents and information such as research data. https://nifa.usda.gov/foia NEPA POLICY AND GUIDANCE The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Policy and Guidance set the standard for identifying potential environmental impacts. https://nifa.usda.gov/nepa-policy-and-guidance OGFM ISSUED CORRESPONDENCE The Office of Grants and Financial Management occasionally issues correspondence to applicants, grantees, and/or the general public for informational or clarification purposes. https://nifa.usda.gov/ogfm-issued-correspondence RESEARCH MISCONDUCT NIFA requires that all its awardees adhere to the USDA Scientific Integrity Policy and the Federal Policy on Research Misconduct. https://nifa.usda.gov/research-misconduct NIFA'S GENERAL AWARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Award terms and conditions are determined by statutory, regulatory, and agency requirements, as well as each grant's circumstances. Terms and conditions dictate important items related to your grant, including method of payment, reporting frequency and content, and prior approval requirements. References to the terms and conditions of awards are located on the NIFA 2009 Award Fact Sheet. NIFA's general award terms and conditions (see link below) is applicable to this program, for awards with an award date on December 26, 2014 and thereafter. https://nifa.usda.gov/resource/nifa-general-terms-and-conditions-grants-and-cooperative-agreements-october-2016.
Examples of Funded Projects
Fiscal Year 2016
For FY 2016: Integrated Control Of Spotted Wing Drosophila, Drosophila Suzukii, In Sustainably Grown Blackberries - The goals/objectives of this project are to: Determine if habitat management/native perennial plantings in a farmscaping approach to enhance beneficial insect diversity and abundance, application of Entrust, and GRANDEVO reduces Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) abundance and damage in blackberries. These studies will: (1) quantify populations of beneficial insects (i.e., lady beetles, lacewings, anthocorids, lygaeids and carabids) and SWD in sustainably grown blackberries with and without native perennial border plantings; (2) assess control of SWD and quantify berry damage; and (3) determine if biologically based products (i.e., Entrust and GRANDEVO) reduce SWD abundance and damage in blackberries in grower cooperator plots. The project will also educate berry growers about results of this research and assist incorporating positive results into their control programs. Financially Literate Entrepreneurship For Rural Youth And Families: A Pilot Study At Two County High Schools - A pilot study that examines, identifies, and supports solutions to the economic challenges specific for youth and their families in rural communities will be conducted under this project. While entrepreneurship programs are in place in some communities, most American youth have little access to comprehensive financial literacy training to support successful entrepreneurship. The primary goal of the pilot study is to improve rural youth and their families' economic and employment situations by providing quality education in entrepreneurship and financial literacy. Five core objectives will be addressed: (1) building an infrastructure for ongoing community development; (2) growing learning opportunities for youth and adults in rural communities; (3) encouraging community investment in rural-based entrepreneurs; (4) reducing challenges faced by youth entrepreneurs; and (5) sharing the methodologies. These objectives will be measured over the three-year term of the grant. Techniques To Improve Calcein Marking Of Fish - The ability to discriminate between wild and hatchery produced fish following stock enhancement is critical to a benefit cost analysis. Calcein represents a non-lethal means of distinguishing among groups of fish following an enhancement stocking. The overall goal of this project is to determine efficacy of using calcein to mark Black Crappie and White Crappie. The studies outlined below in the objectives are needed to achieve the overall goal. The objectives of the project are to: (1)conduct range-finding tests to determine the no observable effect concentrations and 3.5-min LC50s for salt in Black Crappie and White Crappie; (2) conduct focused salinity tolerance tests to reduce the standard errors of estimates of the no observable effect concentrations and 3.5-min LC50s for salt in Black Crappie and White Crappie; (3) determine the maximum dunking density tolerable to Black Crappie and White Crappie; and (4) determine the retention rates and relative intensities of calcein marks on Black Crappie and White Crappie over a period of months to years following marking. OPTIMAL AGRONOMIC PRACTICES TO REDUCE NUTRIENT LOADING IN WATER BODIES The research objectives for this three-year project include the following: (1) Develop a GIS based methodology to assess statewide agronomic practices in a dynamic manner in collaboration with different agencies and institutions. This effort will produce a GIS data base of the agronomic practices of farmers in the watershed that will include variables such as time lines for tillage, fertilizing, planting, applications of chemicals for crop health and harvesting. The yield output cost input data would be included. Historic data on farmers; management practices with regard to tillage, fertilization, crop health, residue management will be captured through this effort with the ability to summarize the practices of individual famers in the area. Small and disadvantaged farmers will be identified and the characteristics will be documented in the study; (2) Develop an integrated methodology to study the impacts of hydrology on nutrient loading under the current agronomic practices. This effort will result in generating a GIS based, monthly rainfall predictive model using stochastic hydrology adjusted for climate change scenarios under prescribed levels of reliability around timelines of agronomic events such as tillage, fertilizing and other chemical applications; and (3) Develop a methodology for comparatively studying the contributions to nutrients from different sources – farms, municipal wastewater plants, discharges from industries. ANALYZING THE ROLE OF HIGH PRO-INFLAMMATORY DIETS AND CHILDHOOD OBESITY IN THE RISK OF ADULT CARCINOGENESIS IN CHILDREN This project was designed to better understand the relationship between pro-inflammatory diets, pro-inflammatory marker expression levels, and adult cancer risk in obese children. The central hypothesis of this study is that high pro-inflammatory diets and lack of exercise, which are obesity precursors, will result in increased levels of bio-inflammatory markers that have been linked to cancer diagnosis. The study proposes to address our goal in two specific aims: Specific Aim 1: To investigate the link between childhood obesity caused by pro-inflammatory (high-fat) diets and low physical activity as risk factors for carcinogenesis; we will measure the expression and functionality of pro-inflammation biomarkers (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL12b, IL-10, TNF α leptin, VEGF, adiponectin, CRP, and SAA); and Specific Aim 2: To determine cancer risks by investigating differences in the pro-inflammatory gene signature according to demographics and socioeconomic status in racially-diverse populations (varying degrees of rurality, age, gender, income, and educational level) by data stratification. Accomplishments to-date for this three (3) year project are: Specific Aim 1: Preliminary data has been collected that compares the expression of the inflammation markers in non-cancer vs. prostate cancer DNA. There is evidence of marked increased expression in the inflammation markers, Serum amyloid A and C-Reactive Protein (SAA1 and CRP). INVESTIGATIONS ON FOOD DERIVED AGES (ADVANCED GLYCATION END-PRODUCTS) IN RELATION TO OBESITY AND BREAST CANCER Finding a cure for breast cancer is a national priority. The goals of this research over a two-year period are to: (1) Investigate the implications of carbohydrate and fat mediated modifications termed as Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) in relation to obesity (BMI>30), and ductal carcinoma breast cancer (known age and BMI values). This will help in early detection of breast cancer, obesity involvement and some predictions about the possible types of medications for prevention of ductal carcinoma type breast cancer. The results of our studies will help us understand the implications of glycoxidation reactions in obesity and ductal carcinoma type breast cancer; and (2) Involves undergraduate students in biomedical research. This will help student interns pursue career goals in the fields of food, nutrition and health. Two (2) to three (3) students are working in this project. Student participants work with sensitive analytical instruments, interpret the data, write research papers, and present these works in local and national scientific conferences. The research work in majority cases involve handling of important biological specimens of obese, cancerous and non-cancerous tissue samples of known BMI values from similar age groups of people.Fiscal Year 2017
TRANSCRIPTOME PROFILING OF HONEY BEE RESPONSE TO CHEMICAL STRESS UNDER DIFFERENTIAL NUTRITIONAL STATUS European honey bee is agriculturally the most beneficial insect as it pollinates a third of food crops in the world. Additionally, managed colonies satisfy the demand for products such as honey, wax and royal jelly. Since 2006, calamitous colony losses, referred to as colony collapse disorder (CCD), are registered in the US and in other world regions. The origin of CCD remains unknown, but many stressors are suspected to be contributing elements. Current research efforts to understand and curb CCD are specially focused on pesticides. This research direction is justified by the overuse of an array of chemicals in modern agriculture and apiculture that led to a contaminated honey bee habitat. Additionally, compared to other insects, honey bee possesses far less immunity genes and lack detoxification genes which could render it more sensitive to stressors. Although, in the last three years several studies investigated pesticide toxicity to honey bees, there are very few that used mixtures of pesticides and sub-lethal doses. These two points are important because they are the most relevant to the habitat, especially that synergy between pesticides is possible leading to higher toxicity than when used separately. The present proposal addresses this gap of knowledge; we suggest conducting a whole transcriptome profiling analysis of honey bee under chemical stress due to two pesticides in sub-lethal doses. Because fitness is closely related to balanced nutrition, especially in a stressful environment, diet is a prominent topic in honey bee research. MICROBIOME FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY DRIVING PLANT BIOMASS DECOMPOSITION IN ENGINEERED ENVIRONMENTS Microbial diversity is the single most important resource needed for the conversion of plant biomass and waste biomass into useful products such as energy and industrially-useful chemical synthesis intermediates. Microbial diversity also drives biogeochemical cycles in soil and animal guts. This study focuses on microbial functional diversity in anaerobic digestion and mine site soil reclamation. Anaerobic digesters are components of waste treatment systems that are used to treat high-strength organic wastes. This research will study how microbial diversity affects the stability and efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process using long-term experiments with laboratory-scale reactors (digesters) that are treating agricultural waste biomass. TRANSITION AND DEMONSTRATION CAPACITY: NON-CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY WEED DISRUPTION IN AGRICULTURE University faculty, undergraduate students, and industry partners will enhance crop production efficiency with reduced environmental impact by replacing post emergence herbicide use with directed energy to control weeds that compete with the crop for nutrients, water and light. The research team’s solution spot-illuminates unwanted plants (weeds) with predetermined light frequencies at certain intensities and duration; controlled by integrated sensors and robotics. There is no equivalent non-chemical commercial farm product in the U.S. available today. Recently funded research has demonstrated in non-agriculture situations the ability to manage, prevent and abate unwanted plants in areas that require control. This team’s approach has been shown effective to both remove unwanted plants and to keep seeds from germinating. OUTDOOR SWINE PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT: RELATIONSHIPS AMONG STOCK SELECTION AND CARCASS/MEAT QUALITY In order to address global food security to increase production of safe, local foods, grown in a manner that supports human and animal health and well-being, alternative production systems have grown in popularity. Such production systems in the swine industry, including group housing in deep-bedded hoop barns and pasture based production, have the potential to address animal welfare, environmental and food safety concerns and could be a way in which producers can take advantage of the niche/specialty markets these systems target if a quality product is developed. The project objectives will allow for development of improved Berkshire genetics, comparison of performance of Berkshire/heritage breed crosses and survey and testing of both on producer farms. Specific objectives are to: Develop an improved Berkshire genetic line, selecting not only for carcass/meat traits, but also reproductive performance. Investigate growth, carcass traits and meat quality of Berkshire crossbreds sired by heritage breeds. The graduate students were trained in performing necessary tasks at the swine unit, getting hands-on experience with handling the large animals and their offspring. The graduate students are expected to pass down the training to the undergraduate students in the following semesters. Through the training system, both the graduate and undergraduate students receive proper training that will prepare them for future careers in animal science.Fiscal Year 2018
ADDRESSING FOOD SECURITY THROUGH A COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT APPROACH The Black Belt region of some southern states has the lowest indicators for quality of life, including poverty, unemployment, education, and health. A key indicator that encompasses all of these factors is security and specifically food security. Food security is defined as "the access for all people at all times to enough food for a healthy active life." Food insecurity, by definition, is a lack of such access to food. Traditional approaches to addressing food security target food access, mainly in the form of school lunch or weekend food programs for children and food stamps (SNAP and WIC) for adults and families. The overall project goal is to assess, evaluate and provide policy and program recommendations to increase the overall quality of life, including food security in the Black Belt Counties. This goal will be achieved through three main objectives: 1) Inventory, assess, and recommend programs that assist socially disadvantage and underserved producers; 2) inventory, assess and recommend kinds of foods that are locally available (including quantities and prices), what kinds of foods are desirable, and what kinds of technologies are used (or could be used) to produce the foods (traditional, low input, organic, locally sourced); and 3) inventory and assess access to food venues, including traditional venues such as supermarket chains, smaller local independent grocery stores, convenience stores, and gas stations as well as more producer-connected food access venues that include u-picks, community supported agriculture (CSAs), farmers markets, community gardens, farm to cafeteria programs and food banks/pantries. Critical aspects include location, inventory, and prices. MY BODY MATTERS 2.0 Wellness risks associated with high rates of childhood obesity include: 1) Obese children missing more school days and demonstrate lower academic performance; 2) Obese children having a 80% chance of becoming overweight or obese adults and are at increased risk for early development of a chronic disease, leading to disability and premature death; and 3) Obese children having health indicators that are significant predictors of coronary heart disease in adulthood, and are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, gallbladder disease, respiratory problems, stroke, depression, and other conditions. The objectives of the project are: 1) To assess children's weight status using anthropometric measurements and self-perception measures; 2) to promote healthful behaviors through nutrition educational intervention; 3) to promote physical activity through self-perception assessment and structured moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) intervention; and 4) to improve home environment for healthful behaviors through parental focus group intervention. DIVERSITY ANALYSIS AND BREEDING IN GRAIN AMARANTH VIA BIOTECHNOLOGY Grain amaranths are a new crop for the Southeastern region of the USA. It has an advantage of being very drought tolerant and having C4 photosynthesis. A new crop would benefit framers who use few different crops in rotation. The overall goal of this Evans-Allen grant is to improve the livelihood of resource limited farmers and communities with new varieties for novel crops such as amaranth. The major goals of this project are: 1) to multiply seed for favorably adapted amaranths (C4 dicotyledenous crop accessions); 2) to assay diversity and adaptation to heat stress (the major abiotic limitation) in vegetable and grain amaranth; 3) to extract DNAs for amaranth collection to use in genotyping and diversity assessment of these collections using modern molecular tools; 4) to develop single nucleotide polymorphism marker sets in genes involved in plant heat stress physiology and crop photosynthetic efficiency and map them; and 5) Association Mapping Analysis through diversity or mutagenesis. MASS TRAPPING FOR ORGANIC MANAGEMENT OF THE INVASIVE JAPANESE BEETLE, POPILLIA JAPONICA (COLEOPTERA: SCARABAEIDAE) AND INTEGRATION OF BEETLE BIOMASS INTO FISH PRODUCTION This project aims at improving the effectiveness of the mass trapping system to control Japanese beetles in organic systems by evaluating plant volatiles that can increase the attractiveness of existing lures. A push-pull strategy involving attractants and repellents will also be developed. In an attempt to use large amounts of Japanese beetles that have been captured using mass trapping, a secondary objective aims at evaluating the nutritional value of P. japonica biomass for potential use as a low-cost, protein-rich feed-stuff for use in feed formulations for cultured fish. The specific research objectives are: 1) To evaluate selected Green Leaf volatiles to increase the attractiveness of the dual lure currently used for P. japonica; 2) to validate the effectiveness of trash bins as low-maintenance mass trapping devices for P. japonica, over a 3-year period; 3) to develop an effective push-pull strategy to minimize crop damage by P. japonica when beetle populations are comparatively high; and 4) to evaluate the nutritional value of P. japonica biomass collected from mass trapping studies for potential use as feed or feed-stuffs in fish feeding regimes. THE IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE POLICY CHANGES ON GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY The goal of this proposal is to evaluate the impact of changes in the international trade policy on global food security. Factors affecting food security indicators in the U.S., S.C., and the Southeast region of Georgia, Florida and North Carolina will be determined. Using novel dynamic panel gravity models and panel prohibit equations with state-level data, the study will analyze and evaluate the effects of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and a renegotiated NAFTA and other major free trade agreements including European Union (EU), Association of South Asian Nations (ASEAN), and Mercado Común del Sur (Southern Common Market) (MERCOSUR) on U.S. agricultural exports. The project provides an analysis of the impacts of food security on local farms by farm size category from small and medium to large farm size categories in the six USDA regions: Central, Eastern, North central, Northwest, Southwestern, and West Central. Under the ongoing renegotiations of NAFTA, it is likely that any new agreement might be significantly different than the current policies. Therefore, we offer details on the treatment of NAFTA and possible impacts of a renegotiated NAFTA on state agricultural exports, and trade. Specific objectives are to: 1) Provide an assessment of food security in the state, the U.S., and the world for the next three decades; 2) identify and evaluate the determinants of food security in South Carolina and the Southeast region; 3) use Representative Farm models to analyze the impacts of food security on local agriculture; 4) assess the impacts of major bilateral and multilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) on the U.S. agricultural production, Exports, and Trade; and 5) train three students in international trade research.Fiscal Year 2019
DIVERSIFYING TREE HOST RANGE FOR SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION OF BIANCHETTO TRUFFLES- TUBER BORCHII Truffle farming is an emerging agricultural system in the US. Efforts to develop sustainable systems for its cultivation are critical and needed from the onset. Truffles develop in association with roots of live trees in a symbiotic relationship. As of today, truffles are the most expensive agricultural produce depending on the species ($200-$1,000/lb) and will be a big boost to US farmers if developed sustainably. The overall goal of the project is to make truffle production more sustainable and wide spread in the entire US. The goal will be met with the following objectives: 1) Evaluate three Pinus species as host for mycorhhizae and cultivation of Bianchetto truffles (Tuber borchii); and 2) evaluate the effect of fertilizer application on mycorrhizae formation in greenhouse and their survival in field plots. SECURE AND OPTIMIZED INTERNET-OF-THINGS DEPLOYMENT FOR SMART FARMING The research objectives of this project include investigating mathematical frameworks and designing novel algorithms to achieve an optimized and secure IoT deployment for smart farming system. The project aims to increase the agricultural yield, reduce the input cost and improve the decision-making in agriculture by developing an IoT based smart farming system. In this project, we aim to accomplish the following research objectives: 1) Develop Integer Linear Programming (ILP) formulations for IoT gateway placement and IoT application placement; 2) design IoT gateway placement and IoT application placement algorithms; 3) develop Markov Decision Process (MDP) formulations for Moving Target Defense (MTD); 4) design Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) based algorithm to solve the MDP; 5) evaluate the performance of the proposed placement algorithms using simulations; 6) evaluate the performance of the proposed DRL algorithm using simulations; 7) build prototype of the proposed IoT based Smart Farming system; and 8) evaluate the prototype using real-world experiments. MICROBIOME FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY DRIVING PLANT BIOMASS DECOMPOSITION IN ENGINEERED ENVIRONMENTS Microbial diversity is the single most important resource needed for the conversion of plant biomass and waste biomass into useful products such as energy and industrially-useful chemical synthesis intermediates. Microbial diversity also drives biogeochemical cycles in soil and animal guts. This study will focus on microbial functional diversity in anaerobic digestion and mine site soil reclamation. Anaerobic digesters are components of waste treatment systems that are used to treat high-strength organic wastes. The objectives of the project are to: 1) Identify microbiome functional diversity driving biomass decomposition efficiency in anaerobic digestion; and 2) measure soil microbiome recovery in disturbed mine site soils. AGRI-BIOTECHNOLOGY TO STRENGTHEN GREEN ECONOMY: SPECIALTY CROPS AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT The introduction of alternative specialty crops has many inherited advantages including economic benefits to farmers through multiple facets: diversifying crop with value-added crops, improving resilience to climate variability, maintaining yields with less resources, and boosting crop resistance to pests and diseases. The use of herbs has enjoyed impressive growth in the last two decades as more people began using fresh herbs for cooking, medicinal herbs and value-added herbal products such as soaps, candles, teas and bath oils. The biggest herb demand is for fresh culinary herbs. However, there are challenges associated with the establishment of new crops, which include lack of information on the plant, cultural practices related to agronomy, and marketing potential. This project explores the opportunities and challenges associated with some of the alternative specialty crops to make them more commerce and consumer friendly by generating more information on their physiology, bioactive compounds and their specific activity evaluation, biomass processing to dry and store medicinal tissues without the loss of therapeutic compounds, and develop protocols for identifying adulteration in green medicinal biomass.Fiscal Year 2020
ADMINISTRATION OF RESEARCH SUPPORTED BY SECTION 1445, PL95-113 FUNDS The overall goal is to provide an effective and efficient administration and coordination of the various approved integrative research projects under the Evans-Allen Program of Research. The objectives are to: 1) Determine the relevant research to be conducted based on the national needs and stakeholder input; 2) provide leadership and oversight in the compliance of rules and regulations that are applicable to the development and implementation of the research program; 3) provide oversight on the use of funds allocated to the implementation of research projects; 4) ensure the on time submission of financial and technical reports including the annual Plan of Work (POW) and the Annual Accomplishment Report; and 5) provide leadership, support and facilitate innovation and technology transfer. ADMINISTRATION OF RESEARCH SUPPORTED BY SECTION 1445 To provide planning, direction, support, and effective administration of the research program supported by section 1445. The Land Grant Program is committed to excellence in research to meet the needs of a diverse population. The objectives are: 1) To promote faculty, staff, and student research productivity through innovative research approaches that address stakeholder needs in both rural and urban settings; and 2) to enhance research support and administrative efficiency in planning and implementing of Evans Allen funds to ensure compliance with NIFA regulations. The 19 institutions will respond to the Request for Applications and submit an Administrative Plan of Work. The programs of research must have at least one active research project before funds are released.