The Navy spends countless dollars annually on preserving and conserving federally listed species and their habitats. Additional dollars are spent on fuel treatments traditionally used in the region but which lack quantitative support. General literature and observational data suggest that these typical fuel treatments may, in the long run, serve to decrease soil moisture and temperature and increase invasive vegetation that serve as flash fuels, while decreasing the quantity and quality of habitat available for federally listed species. These potentially conflicting requirements often occur in highly urban and suburban areas where fire risk and liability are real threats to the mission. The current project seeks to bring all these objectives together to provide research on an ecosystem management approach to reduce fire risk and liability in an ecologically sustainable manner that also increases habitat quality for listed species, and reduces long-term maintenance costs. To achieve quality outcomes that support the mission in the most efficient manner, techniques suggested by qualitative and observational data need precise implementation with an appropriate experimental design, quantitative monitoring results, and analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of results. See the statement of work for full description of the project.