The primary purpose of the collaborative DoD/VA Consortium will be to improve the health and well-being of Service Members (Active Duty, National Guard, and Reservist) and Veterans, with the most effective diagnostics, prognostics, novel treatments, and rehabilitative strategies to treat acute PTSD and to prevent chronic PTSD. This Consortium is responsive to the findings of the recently released DoD/VA-sponsored Institute of Medicine report focused on Â“Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and Veteran PopulationsÂ”. Key priorities of this Consortium are elucidation of factors that influence the different trajectories (onset/progression/duration) of PTSD and associated chronic mental and physical sequelae (including depression, anger/aggression, and substance use/abuse, etc.) and identification of measures for determining who is likely to go on to develop chronic PTSD. The Consortium will therefore work to improve prognostics, advance treatments, and mitigate negative long-term consequences associated with traumatic exposure. Focused scientific efforts to understand and treat PTSD have been supported by the DoD and VA extensively. However, to date, treatments have not been fully successful in all individuals. There remains a significant number who do not respond to the currently available treatment regimens, and the question of predicting treatment response remains a priority.