This ROSES NRA (NNH16ZDA001N) solicits basic and applied research in support of NASAâ€™s Science Mission Directorate (SMD). This NRA covers all aspects of basic and applied supporting research and technology in space and Earth sciences, including, but not limited to: theory, modeling, and analysis of SMD science data; aircraft, scientific balloon, sounding rocket, International Space Station, CubeSat and suborbital reusable launch vehicle investigations; development of experiment techniques suitable for future SMD space missions; development of concepts for future SMD space missions; development of advanced technologies relevant to SMD missions; development of techniques for and the laboratory analysis of both extraterrestrial samples returned by spacecraft, as well as terrestrial samples that support or otherwise help verify observations from SMD Earth system science missions; determination of atomic and composition parameters needed to analyze space data, as well as returned samples from the Earth or space; Earth surface observations and field campaigns that support SMD science missions; development of integrated Earth system models; development of systems for applying Earth science research data to societal needs; and development of applied information systems applicable to SMD objectives and data. Awards range from under $100K per year for focused, limited efforts (e.g., data analysis) to more than $1M per year for extensive activities (e.g., development of specialized science experimental hardware). The funds available for awards in each program element offered in this NRA range from less than one to several million dollars, which allow selection from a few to as many as several dozen proposals, depending on the program objectives and the submission of proposals of merit. Awards will be made as grants, cooperative agreements, contracts, and inter- or intraagency transfers, depending on the nature of the work proposed, the proposing organization, and/or program requirements. The typical period of performance for an award is three years, but some programs may allow up to five years and others specify shorter periods. Organizations of every type, domestic and foreign, Government and private, for profit and not-for-profit, may submit proposals without restriction on teaming arrangements. Note that it is NASA policy that all investigations involving non-U.S. organizations will be conducted on the basis of no exchange of funds. Electronic submission of proposals is required by the respective due dates for each program element and must be submitted by an authorized official of the proposing organization. Electronic proposals may be submitted via the NASA proposal data system NSPIRES or via Grants.gov. Every organization that intends to submit a proposal in response to this ROSES NRA must be registered with NSPIRES; organizations that intend to submit proposals via Grants.gov must be registered with Grants.gov, in addition to being registered with NSPIRES. Such registration must identify the authorized organizational representative(s) who will submit the electronic proposal. All principal investigators and other participants (e.g., co-investigators) must be registered in NSPIRES regardless of submission system. Potential proposers and proposing organizations are urged to access the system(s) well in advance of the proposal due date(s) of interest to familiarize themselves with its structure and enter the requested information. Details of the solicited programs are given in the Appendices of this ROSES NRA. Names, due dates, and links for the individual calls are given in Tables 2 and 3 of this ROSES NRA. Interested proposers should monitor http://nspires.nasaprs.com/ or subscribe to the electronic notification system there for additional new programs or amendments to this ROSES NRA through February 2017, at which time release of a subsequent ROSES NRA is planned. A web archive (and RSS feed) for amendments, clarifications, and corrections to this ROSES NRA will be available at: http://nasascience.nasa.gov/researchers/sara/grant-solicitations/roses-2016/ Frequently asked questions about ROSES-2016 will be on the web at http://science.nasa.gov/researchers/sara/faqs/. Further information about specific program elements may be obtained from the individual Program Officers listed in the Summary of Key Information for each program element in the Appendices of this ROSES NRA and at http://science.nasa.gov/researchers/sara/program-officers-list/. Questions concerning general ROSES NRA policies and procedures may be directed to Max Bernstein, Lead for Research, Science Mission Directorate, at firstname.lastname@example.org.