With this solicitation, subject to available funding, NIJ seeks proposals for important research work and scholarship as part of the 2016 NIJ Visiting Fellows Program. Awards made under the NIJ Visiting Fellows Program will bring leading researchers and others into residency at NIJ to make important scholarly contributions in their chosen fields of criminology or criminal justice research, and to work with the NIJ Director and staff to help shape the direction of NIJ's research programs. NIJ will recruit research fellows, who have backgrounds primarily in academic or research settings, and policy fellows, who have backgrounds working primarily in a criminal justice policy or practice setting. NIJ will also recruit partnership fellows, a research fellow and a policy fellow who will work together on a joint-research project. During their fellowship at NIJ, visiting fellows will work on a significant piece of scholarship that has the potential to advance significantly criminology or criminal justice research, such as a major capstone effort culminating a line of research or some work in a new area that has significant potential to transform our understanding of crime and justice in the United States.