On February 11, 2014, President Obama issued the National Strategy for Combating Wildlife Trafficking. Incorporating recommendations from the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking, the Implementation Plan was released on February 11, 2015 to guide and direct the efforts of Federal agencies in executing the Strategy. The Plan followed the structure and objectives of the three Strategic Priorities identified in the Strategy: Strengthen Enforcement (including both U.S. Domestic Enforcement and Global Enforcement), Reduce Demand for Illegally Traded Wildlife, and Expand International Cooperation and Commitment. Twenty-four objectives fall under these three Strategic Priorities, each including a number of Next Steps that identify discrete actions. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is identified as a lead or participating agency in all 24 Implementation Plan Objectives, reflecting the commitment and history of USFWS International Affairs and Office of Law Enforcement in the fight against the illegal wildlife trade. To complement and facilitate existing efforts, USFWS has developed this Notice of Funding Opportunity to provide financial assistance to projects that advance counter-wildlife trafficking activities (wildlife defined to include terrestrial and aquatic species and timber) as outlined in the Next Steps of the National Strategys Implementation Plan. Applicants may submit pre-proposals to support any of the Implementation Plans Objectives. Priority will be given, however, to proposals related to the Objectives identified below, which have been identified as appropriate activities for awards. 1. Strengthen Enforcement: Global Enforcement a. Support Governments in Building Capacity Description: The USFWS will support efforts to assist foreign governments in range, transit, and consumer countries affected by wildlife trafficking in building their capacity to address the wildlife trafficking chain at any critical stage of enforcement. These efforts may focus on building the capacity to fight wildlife trafficking through: crafting strong laws, stopping poachers, protecting borders, investigating traffickers, fighting trafficking-related corruption, improving professionalism, strengthening judicial and prosecutorial effectiveness, building and bringing strong cases, and obtaining penalties adequate to deter others. b. Support Community-Based Wildlife Conservation Description: The USFWS will support efforts to work with local communities in foreign countries to protect wildlife and prevent wildlife trafficking. For example, USFWS will support efforts to strengthen reporting of poaching and other trafficking activities by local communities working with authorities, as well as efforts that create local support for conserving wildlife, including through work to strengthen or create economic incentives for communities to protect wildlife. USFWS will also support efforts to work with communities to develop secure methods of sharing information with enforcement officials and efforts to further develop community based conservation initiatives in key wildlife areas where poaching occurs or is likely. c. Support Development and Use of Effective Technologies and Analytical Tools Description: The USFWS will support efforts to develop and broadly disseminate cost effective analytic tools and technological solutions to support wildlife trafficking investigations and prosecutions. For example, USFWS will support efforts to improve methods and capacity for customs, border and investigative personnel to detect and identify illegally traded wildlife and wildlife products, and for programs to build international forensic capacity. 2. Reduce Demand for Illegally Traded Wildlife a. Raise Public Awareness and Change Behavior Description: The USFWS will support efforts to raise public awareness and recognition of wildlife trafficking and its negative impacts, and associated risks of prosecution, as a means to change harmful consumption patterns and eliminate the demand for illegally traded wildlife and wildlife products. For example, where a lack of public awareness has been demonstrated to be the primary barrier to reducing demand, the USFWS will support activities such as social media campaigns, public service announcements, and the use of public spaces at home and abroad, which target specific consumer groups to raise public awareness of the illegal wildlife trade. USFWS will also support efforts to work with the private sector to raise awareness within organizations and among their respective consumer bases and audiences on the broader impacts and risks of buying or selling illegal wildlife products. b. Promote Demand Reduction Efforts Globally Description: The USFWS will support efforts to eliminate the market for illegally traded wildlife in key consumer countries and regions. For example, the USFWS will support efforts to develop, assess and implement best practices, effective approaches and robust methodologies in demand reduction in key consumer countries and range states. 3. Expand International Cooperation and Commitment a. Strengthen International Agreements and Arrangements that Protect Wildlife Description: The USFWS will support efforts to strengthen and ensure effective implementation and enforcement of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), and other existing international agreements and arrangements, pursuing the adoption of appropriate measures to respond to the current crisis of poaching and trafficking. b. Cooperate with Other Governments (Bilateral and regional) Description: The USFWS will support efforts to catalyze political will and actions to address wildlife trafficking at all levels of government in foreign countries. These efforts may include government commitments to combat wildlife trafficking through multilateral, bilateral and/or regional agreements, and prioritizing wildlife trafficking in environmental and trade agreements. Outcomes may include securing key wildlife populations and habitats; providing information on the status of targeted species and of groups involved in poaching and trafficking; enhancing governance for the conservation and sustainable use of wildlife and other natural resources; and leveraging wildlife trafficking with efforts in other areas to develop synergies.