The mission of the CESU Network is to promote, conduct, and provide research, technical assistance and education services nationwide in support of the missions of participating federal agencies and their partners concerning natural and cultural resource management on federal and/or private lands and waters. Archaeological excavations, large scale sample surveys, and contemporary tribal interviews with elders, historical document reviews, and ambitious regional syntheses of the results. These investigations were cutting edge and resulted in a period of exceptionally significant advancement of scientific knowledge. This period of progressive research for heritage resources guided BLM planning within the multiple use mission mandates and provided the foundation for comprehensive land management prescriptions of cultural resources. The work also stimulated general archaeological scientific study by encouraging an entire generation of new archaeologists to conduct research in a wide manner of new approaches on BLM land and elsewhere.