Employment Discrimination-title Ii Of The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act Of 2008
Title II of GINA prohibits the use of genetic information in making employment decisions, restricts employers and other entities covered by Title II (employment agencies, labor organizations and joint labor-management training and apprenticeship programs) from requesting, requiring or purchasing genetic information, and strictly limits the disclosure of genetic information. Title II of GINA also prohibits retaliation against applicants or employees for filing a charge of discrimination, participating in a discrimination proceeding (such as a discrimination investigation or lawsuit), or otherwise opposing discrimination. Genetic information includes information about an individual’s genetic tests and the genetic tests of an individual’s family members, as well as information about the manifestation of a disease or disorder in an individual’s family members (i.e. family medical history). Genetic information also includes an individual's request for, or receipt of, genetic services, or the participation in clinical research that includes genetic services by the individual or a family member of the individual, and the genetic information of a fetus carried by an individual or by a pregnant woman who is a family member of the individual and the genetic information of any embryo legally held by the individual or family member using an assisted reproductive technology.
Last Known Status
Agency: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Types of Assistance
Advisory Services and Counseling; Federal Employment; Investigation of Complaints
Uses and Use Restrictions
Individuals are protected from discrimination on the basis of genetic information by employers with 15 or more employees, federal agencies, employment agencies, labor organizations, and joint labor-management training and apprenticeship programs. The EEOC has an assessment tool, available at https://egov.eeoc.gov/eas/, to enable individuals to determine whether EEOC is the appropriate agency to contact regarding discrimination, harassment, or retaliation at the hands of a private sector employer or state or local government. Charges of discriminatory employment practices by a private sector employer or a state or local government can be filed by or on behalf of an individual or group of individuals claiming to be aggrieved. Mediation may be offered to the parties involved. If mediation is not used or is not successful, an investigation may ensue. If, after its investigation, the Commission determines that there is reasonable cause to believe that discrimination has occurred, it will attempt to resolve the charge informally through conciliation. If conciliation proves to be unsuccessful and the employer is not a state or local government, the Commission may bring a civil action against the respondent(s) named in the charge or issue a right to sue letter to the party who filed the charge, giving him or her the right to file a civil action in federal court. If conciliation fails on a charge against a state or local government, EEOC refers the case to the Department of Justice for consideration of litigation or issuance of a right to sue letter. If the Commission does not find reasonable cause, the charging party is issued a right to sue letter. A federal government applicant or employee who believes that his or her employment rights have been violated on the basis of genetic information and wants to make a claim against a federal agency must file a complaint with that agency and follow the procedures set forth at 29 C.F.R. part 1614.
The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008, Title II, Public Law 110-233, 42 U.S.C 2000ff.
Any aggrieved individual, or any individual, labor union, association, legal representative, or organization filing on behalf of an aggrieved individual, who has reason to believe that an unlawful employment practice within the meaning of Title II of GINA has been committed by an employer, federal agency, an employment agency, labor organization, or joint labor-management committee controlling apprenticeship or other training or retraining, or on-the-job training programs. Any aggrieved individual who believes that he or she has been retaliated against for opposing employment practices that discriminate on the basis of genetic information or who files a charge of discrimination, testifies, or participates in any way in an investigation, proceeding, or litigation under Title II of GINA.
Applicants, current employees, or former employees of the named respondent(s) who have been subjected to employment practices based on genetic information by the named respondent(s), and/or who have been subjected to retaliation for opposing discrimination or participating in a Title II of GINA investigation, proceeding, or litigation.
A claim of unlawful employment practice(s) may be made in person, by mail, or by fax. An allegation must be in writing, signed, and or notarized when necessary to meet state or local requirements. Charge forms (EEOC Form 5, Charge of Discrimination) are available to all persons from field offices of the Commission. Individuals may also consult EEOC’s website at http://www.eeoc.gov/employees/howtofile.cfm for detailed information about filing a charge. Federal government applicants or employees should consult EEOC’s website at http://www.eeoc.gov/federal/fed_employees/complaint_overview.cfm for details about filing an employment discrimination complaint against a federal agency. This program is excluded from coverage under OMB Circular No. A-87.
Application and Award Process
Preapplication coordination is not applicable. Environmental impact information is not required for this program. This program is excluded from coverage under E.O. 12372.
This program is excluded from coverage under OMB Circular No. A-102. This program is excluded from coverage under OMB Circular No. A-110. A charge may be filed by any aggrieved individual, any individual on behalf of an aggrieved individual, or by any organization, i.e., labor union, association, legal representative, etc., either as an aggrieved entity or on behalf of an aggrieved individual. Charges may be filed in person, by mail, or by fax at the nearest field office of the EEOC. Complaints against the federal government should be filed at the relevant agency’s EEO office. Each agency is required to post information about how to contact the agency's EEO office.
A charge is sufficient when the Commission receives from the person making the charge a written signed statement that includes an allegation of discrimination, the name(s) of the parties involved, and a request that the EEOC act to protect the applicant or employee’s rights or otherwise settle a dispute between the applicant or employee and the employer.
Range of Approval/Disapproval Time
Title II of GINA requires that charges be filed within 180 days of the date of the alleged violation, within 300 days if the charge is also covered by a state or local anti-discrimination law, or within 30 days of receipt of notice of termination of state or local proceedings, whichever is earlier. If the evidence does not establish that discrimination occurred, charging parties will be given written notice of their right to sue. A charging party may file a lawsuit within 90 days after receiving a notice of a right to sue from the EEOC. Under Title II of GINA, a charging party also can request a notice of right to sue from EEOC 180 days after the charge was first filed with the Commission, and may then bring suit within 90 days after receiving this notice. When a right to sue letter is issued at the request of the charging party, EEOC usually stops its investigation. Federal job applicants or employees must generally contact the agency’s EEO Counselor within 45 days from the date the discrimination occurred.
Formula and Matching Requirements
Statutory Formula: Title The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008, Chapter 29, Part 1635, Subpart N/A, Public Law 110 Stat.233; 42 U.S.C. 2000ff. Title II of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA) prohibits the use of genetic information in making employment decisions, restricts employers and other entities covered by Title II from requesting, requiring or purchasing genetic information and strictly limits the disclosure of genetic information.
This program has no matching requirements.
This program does not have MOE requirements.
Length and Time Phasing of Assistance
Not Applicable. See the following for information on how assistance is awarded/released: Not Applicable.
Post Assistance Requirements
No reports are required.
No audits are required for this program.
Fiscal Year 2013: Field legal units of the agency filed 131 merits lawsuits during FY 2013. These included 89 individual suits, 21 non-systemic class suits, and 21 systemic suits. Legal staff resolved 209 merits lawsuits for a total monetary recovery of $39 million. At the end of FY 2013, the EEOC had 231 cases on its active docket, of which 46 (20 percent) were non-systemic class cases and 54 (23 percent) involved challenges to systemic discrimination. Fiscal Year 2014: No Current Data Available Fiscal Year 2015: No Current Data Available
(Salaries) FY 13 $344,218,830; FY 14 est $364,000,000; and FY 15 est $365,531,000
Range and Average of Financial Assistance
Regulations, Guidelines and Literature
Publications are available on the EEOC website (www.eeoc.gov). To request documents in alternative formats (Braille, large print, etc), contact EEOC at (202) 663-4191 (voice) or (202) 663-4494 (TTY). Regulations include 29 CFR 1635: Regulations under the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 and 29 CFR 1614: Federal Sector Equal Employment Opportunity. There are no enforcement guidances or policy documents discussing Title II of GINA. Technical assistance documents include: Background Information for EEOC Final Rule on Title II of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 and Questions and Answers for Small Businesses: Title II of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008, both available at http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/genetic.cfm.
Regional or Local Office
See Regional Agency Offices.
Office of Communication and Legislative Affairs 131 M Street, N.E., Washington, District of Columbia 20507 Phone: 202-663-4191/202-663-4494TTY
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